Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve.
Birth: 6 January
1916, Duluth, Minn.
Appointed from: Minnesota.
Citation: For conspicuous
gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the
call of duty as Executive Officer of the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, 6th
Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima
in the Ryukyu Islands, 14 and 15 May 1945. Ordered to hold for the night
in static defense behind Sugar Loaf Hill after leading the forward elements
of his command in a prolonged fire fight, Maj. Courtney weighed the effect
of a hostile night counterattack against the tactical value of an immediate
marine assault, resolved to initiate the assault, and promptly obtained
permission to advance and seize the forward slope of the hill. Quickly
explaining the situation to his small remaining force, he declared his
personal intention of moving forward and then proceeded on his way, boldly
blasting nearby cave positions and neutralizing enemy guns as he went.
Inspired by his courage, every man followed without hesitation, and together
the intrepid marines braved a terrific concentration of Japanese gunfire
to skirt the hill on the right and reach the reverse slope. Temporarily
halting, Maj. Courtney sent guides to the rear for more ammunition and
possible replacements. Subsequently reinforced by 26 men and an LVT load
of grenades, he determined to storm the crest of the hill and crush any
planned counterattack before it could gain sufficient momentum to effect
a breakthrough. Leading his men by example rather than by command, he pushed
ahead with unrelenting aggressiveness, hurling grenades into cave openings
on the slope with devastating effect. Upon reaching the crest and observing
large numbers of Japanese forming for action less than 100 yards away,
he instantly attacked, waged a furious battle and succeeded in killing
many of the enemy and in forcing the remainder to take cover in the caves.
Determined to hold, he ordered his men to dig in and, coolly disregarding
the continuous hail of flying enemy shrapnel to rally his weary troops,
tirelessly aided casualties and assigned his men to more advantageous positions.
Although instantly killed by a hostile mortar burst while moving among
his men, Maj. Courtney, by his astute military acumen, indomitable leadership
and decisive action in the face of overwhelming odds, had contributed essentially
to the success of the Okinawa campaign. His great personal valor throughout
sustained and enhanced the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
He gallantly gave his life for his country.
This data was extracted from the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, U.S. Senate, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863-1973 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1973)